Background: To develop a model for prediction of severe intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) or death based on variables from the first 12 h of age and to compare mortality and morbidities with and without exposure to early indomethacin.
Methods: This retrospective cohort study included extreme preterm (220/7-266/7 weeks) infants born at National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network sites. Primary outcome was a composite of severe ICH and/or death.
Results: Of 4624 infants, 1827 received early indomethacin. Lower gestation, lack of antenatal steroids exposure, lower 1-min Apgar, male sex, and receipt of epinephrine were associated with severe ICH or death. Early indomethacin was associated with a lower risk of patent ductus arteriosus, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and higher risk of spontaneous intestinal perforation.
Conclusions: A model for early prediction of severe ICH/death was developed and validated. Early indomethacin was associated with a lower risk of patent ductus arteriosus and bronchopulmonary dysplasia and a higher risk of spontaneous intestinal perforation.
Clinical trial registration: Not applicable.
Impact: Modern data on severe ICH and neonatal morbidities in relation to prophylactic indomethacin are scarce in the published literature. Prophylactic indomethacin was associated with a lower risk of patent ductus arteriosus and bronchopulmonary dysplasia and a higher risk of intestinal perforation. A risk estimator for severe intracranial hemorrhage/death was developed in a large cohort of extremely preterm infants. The risk estimator developed based on a large cohort of patients provides an estimate of severe intracranial bleeding for an individual infant.
Chawla, S., Natarajan, G., Laptook, A. R., Chowdhury, D., Bell, E. F., Ambalavanan, N., Carlo, W. A., et al. (2022). Model for severe intracranial hemorrhage and role of early indomethacin in extreme preterm infants. Pediatric Research.