Integrated health care delivery for adolescents living with and at risk of HIV infection:  A review of models and actions for implementation

Integrated service delivery, providing coordinated services in a convenient manner, is important in HIV prevention and treatment for adolescents as they have interconnected health care needs related to HIV care, sexual and reproductive health and disease prevention. This review aimed to (1) identify key components of adolescent-responsive integrated service delivery in low and middle-income countries, (2) describe projects that have implemented integrated models of HIV care for adolescents, and (3) develop action steps to support the implementation of sustainable integrated models. We developed an implementation science-informed conceptual framework for integrated delivery of HIV care to adolescents and applied the framework to summarize key data elements in ten studies or programs across seven countries. Key pillars of the framework included (1) the socioecological perspective, (2) community and health care system linkages, and (3) components of adolescent-focused care. The conceptual framework and action steps outlined can catalyze design, implementation, and optimization of HIV care for adolescents.