Methods: We conducted focus group discussions with women who use substances and with service providers, we also conducted in-depth interviews with health service planners. Our goal was to examine implementation and clinical outcomes associated with delivery of the WHC across clinics and substance abuse rehab programs.
Results: All participants agreed on the need for the WHC. Perceived facilitators to implementing the WHC included the recognizable need for programs to empower women and to build the capacity of staff to address issues of substance use, sexual risk, and intimate partner violence. Participants also identified potential barriers to women engaging with this program, including the stigma women experience when seeking services and the lack of person-centered care at healthcare facilities.
Conclusions: In a country with the largest number of women of childbearing age living with HIV, an evidence-based woman-focused intervention that comprehensively addresses women's risk for suboptimal antiretroviral adherence may be essential for reducing HIV incidence. However, potential barriers to implementing the WHC successfully must be addressed before the program can be fully integrated into the services delivered by healthcare facilities.