Early Pregnancy Atherogenic Profile in a First Pregnancy and Hypertension Risk 2 to 7 Years After Delivery


Background Cardiovascular risk in young adulthood is an important determinant of lifetime cardiovascular disease risk. Women with adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) have increased cardiovascular risk, but the relationship of other factors is unknown. Methods and Results Among 4471 primiparous women, we related first-trimester atherogenic markers to risk of APO (hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, preterm birth, small for gestational age), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and hypertension (130/80 mm Hg or antihypertensive use) 2 to 7 years after delivery. Women with an APO/GDM (n=1102) had more atherogenic characteristics (obesity [34.2 versus 19.5%], higher blood pressure [systolic blood pressure 112.2 versus 108.4, diastolic blood pressure 69.2 versus 66.6 mm Hg], glucose [5.0 versus 4.8 mmol/L], insulin [77.6 versus 60.1 pmol/L], triglycerides [1.4 versus 1.3 mmol/L], and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [5.6 versus 4.0 nmol/L], and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [1.8 versus 1.9 mmol/L]; P<0.05) than women without an APO/GDM. They were also more likely to develop hypertension after delivery (32.8% versus 18.1%, P<0.05). Accounting for confounders and factors routinely assessed antepartum, higher glucose (relative risk [RR] 1.03 [95% CI, 1.00-1.06] per 0.6 mmol/L), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (RR, 1.06 [95% CI, 1.02-1.11] per 2-fold higher), and triglycerides (RR, 1.27 [95% CI, 1.14-1.41] per 2-fold higher) were associated with later hypertension. Higher physical activity was protective (RR, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.87-0.99] per 3 h/week). When evaluated as latent profiles, the nonobese group with higher lipids, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and insulin values (6.9% of the cohort) had increased risk of an APO/GDM and later hypertension. Among these factors, 7% to 15% of excess RR was related to APO/GDM. Conclusions Individual and combined first-trimester atherogenic characteristics are associated with APO/GDM occurrence and hypertension 2 to 7 years later. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02231398.
Catov JM, McNeil RB, Marsh DJ, Mercer BM, Bairey Merz CN, Parker CB, Pemberton VL, Saade GR, Chen YI, Chung JH, Ehrenthal DB, Grobman WA, Haas DM, Parry S, Polito L, Reddy UM, Silver RM, Simhan HN, Wapner RJ, Kominiarek M, Kreutz R, Levine LD, Greenland P; NHLBI nuMoM2b Heart Health Study. Early Pregnancy Atherogenic Profile in a First Pregnancy and Hypertension Risk 2 to 7 Years After Delivery. J Am Heart Assoc. 2021 Feb 23:e017216. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.120.017216. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33619977.